PISA 2018 asked pupils a series of questions about their global and intercultural attitudes and dispositions. These questions focused on the four dimensions of global competence:
In most OECD countries, compared to the boys, the girls showed:
Boys are more likely than girls to participate in activities in which they are expected to share and discuss their views, while girls are more likely than boys to participate in activities related to intercultural understanding and communication.
The authors of the study conclude that girls should be empowered to take an active role in participatory learning activities and thus strengthen their self-efficacy while boys need to be encouraged to participate in activities focusing on intercultural understanding and communication.